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March 2010
Cambridge University Press
Order Book

Pricing Carbon

A. Denny Ellerman, MIT; Frank J. Convery, University College Dublin; Christian de Perthuis
Université de Paris IX (Paris-Dauphine)
The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme
The European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world’s largest market for carbon and the most significant multinational initiative ever taken to mobilize markets to protect the environment. It will be an important influence on the development and implementation of trading schemes in the US, Japan, and elsewhere. However, as is true of any pioneering public policy experiment, this scheme has generated much controversy.

Pricing Carbon provides the first detailed description and analysis of the EU ETS, focusing on the first ‘trial’ period of the scheme (2005–7). Written by an international team of experts, it allows readers to get behind the headlines and come to a better understanding of what was done and what happened based on a dispassionate, empirically based review of the evidence. This book should be read by anyone who wants to know what happens when emissions are capped, traded, and priced.

March 2010
MIT Press
Order Book

Street-Fighting Mathematics

Sanjoy Mahajan
The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving
In Street-Fighting Mathematics, Sanjoy Mahajan builds, sharpens, and demonstrates tools for educated guessing and down-and-dirty, opportunistic problem solving across diverse fields of knowledge—from mathematics to management. Mahajan describes six tools: dimensional analysis, easy cases, lumping, picture proofs, successive approximation, and reasoning by analogy. Illustrating each tool with numerous examples, he carefully separates the tool—the general principle—from the particular application so that the reader can most easily grasp the tool itself to use on problems of particular interest.

Street-Fighting Mathematics grew out of a short course taught by the author at MIT for students ranging from first-year undergraduates to graduate students ready for careers in physics, mathematics, management, electrical engineering, computer science, and biology.

Sanjoy Mahajan is Associate Director of the Teaching and Learning Laboratory and a Lecturer in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. Before coming to MIT, he was a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and a Lecturer in Physics in the University of Cambridge.

May 2008
MIT Press
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Digital Apollo

David A. Mindell
Human and Machine in Spaceflight
As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer’s software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine.

In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famous moment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers in the Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From the early days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to be more than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and software developed by engineers. Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's extensive archives.

Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight—a lunar landing—traces and reframes the debate over the future of humans and automation in space. The results have implications for any venture in which human roles seem threatened by automated systems, whether it is the work at our desktops or the future of exploration.

David A. Mindell is Dibner Professor of the History of Engineering and Manufacturing, Professor of Engineering Systems, and Director of the Program in Science, Technology, and Society at MIT. He is the author of Between Human and Machine: Feedback, Control, and Computing before Cybernetics and War, Technology, and Experience aboard the USS Monitor.

March 2010
ILP Communications
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ILP Communications
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Don't let tough economic times limit meaningful discussions with MIT faculty. Let your Industrial Liaison Officer schedule our next meeting online, using the technology best suited for your company's needs.

December 2009
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An Action Plan for Cars

Heywood, Baptista, Berry, Bhatt, Cheah, de Sisternes, Karplus, Keith, Khusid, MacKenzie, McAulay
The Policies Needed to Reduce US Petroleum Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from cars and light duty trucks in the United States over the next several decades requires that we implement a clear and coordinated set of policies now. This report describes a portfolio of policies which, in the view of the authors, is needed to put personal vehicle transportation on the road to sustainability in the longer term.

To incentivize adoption of more fuel efficient vehicles, we propose coupling existing near term fuel economy standards with a feebate incentive program and gradual increases in fuel taxes. We further propose driver education initiatives that would give vehicle owners information on how to maximize fuel savings in their purchase and driving decisions. Finally, we underscore the need for a long term strategy for fuels that evaluates fuels related programs based on their contribution to reducing lifecycle petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Together, these policies offer a robust plan of action that will focus and streamline current efforts to achieve these two important national goals. Perhaps most importantly, this plan lays a much needed foundation for a comprehensive, adaptable long term policy effort.