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April 2010
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2009 Update to the 2003 Future of Nuclear Power

Deutch, Forsberg, Kadak, Kazimi, Moniz, Parsons
An Interdisciplinary MIT Study
In 2003 a group of MIT faculty issued a study on The Future of Nuclear Power.1
The study was motivated by growing concern about global warming and the
urgency of developing and deploying electricity generating technologies that
do not emit CO2 or other greenhouse gases (GHG). The study addressed the
steps needed in the near term in order to enable nuclear power to be a viable
marketplace option at a time and at a scale that could materially mitigate climate
change risks. In this context, the study explicitly assessed the challenges of a
scenario in which nuclear power capacity expands from approximately 100 GWe
in the United States in 2000 to 300 GWe at mid-century (from 340 to 1000 GWe
globally), thereby enabling an increase in nuclear power’s approximately 20%
share of U.S. electricity generation to about 30% (from 16% to 20% globally).

The important challenges examined were (1) cost, (2) safety, (3) waste
management, and (4) proliferation risk. In addition, the report examined
technology opportunities and needs, and offered recommendations for research,
development, and demonstration.

The 2003 MIT study on The Future of Nuclear Power, supported by the Alfred P.
Sloan Foundation, has had a significant impact on the public debate both in the
United States and abroad and the study has influenced both legislation by the
U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear energy
R&D program.

This report presents an update on the 2003 study. Almost six years have passed
since the report was issued, a new administration in Washington is formulating
its energy policy, and, most importantly, concern about the energy future
remains high. We review what has changed from 2003 to today with respect
to the challenges facing nuclear power mentioned above. A second purpose
of this Update is to provide context for a new MIT study, currently underway,
on The Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, which will examine the pros and cons
of alternative fuel cycle strategies, the readiness of the technologies needed for
them, and the implications for near-term policies.

April 2010
National Science Foundation
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NSF: Science and Engineering Indicators 2010

National Science Foundation
The Science Indicators series was designed to provide a broad base of quantitative information about U.S. science, engineering, and technology for use by policy makers, researchers, and the general public. Science and Engineering Indicators 2010 contains analyses of key aspects of the scope, quality, and vitality of the Nation's science and engineering enterprise in the context of global science and technology.

March 2009
National Science Foundation
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NSF: Academic Research and Development Expenditures: Fiscal Year 2007

National Science Foundation
The data presented in this report were compiled from the National Science Foundation (NSF) FY 2007 Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges. The fiscal year reference period refers to the fiscal year of the surveyed institution. The survey collects the separately budgeted R&D expenditures in science and engineering (S&E) fields reported by universities and colleges. Unless otherwise noted, expenditures analyzed in this report refer to S&E R&D activities only. Non-S&E expenditures are reported separately and are not included in the overall expenditures totals. Terms used in institutional accounting procedures are incorporated throughout the tables.

February 2009
Harvard Business School Press
Order Book

The Truth About Middle Managers

Paul Osterman
Who They Are, How They Work, Why They Matter
"Middle management" is a term associated with relentless downsizing, corporate drudgery, and career dead-ends. Bashed by management gurus, dismissed by social scientists, and painted as victims by the media, middle managers seem permanently relegated to the sidelines of corporate power. But is this popular picture accurate? Are middle managers really no longer valued by today's performance-driven organizations? The truth is surprising.

MIT management scholar Paul Osterman has analyzed over thirty years' worth of employment data, interviewed a wide sample of managers, and uncovered a very different picture of middle managers today. Not only have their numbers increased dramatically, but middle managers are wealthier, more productive, more autonomous--and they gain real pleasure from their day-to-day work.

But there's another side to the story: while managers have maintained their commitment to their tasks and to their colleagues, they are increasingly cynical and distant from their organizations. They are confused about their future and how to manage their careers. This comes at a time when the value of middle management is much greater than ever before. Organizations must rethink their understanding of this vital workforce segment--now. Understand the issues for yourself with The Truth About Middle Managers' refreshing and counterintuitive look at what's really going on.

Paul Osterman is the Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Professor of Human Resources and Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management as well as a member of the Department of Urban Planning at MIT. From July 2003 to June 2007 he also served as Deputy Dean at the Sloan School.

His research concerns changes in work organization within companies, career patterns and processes within firms, economic development, urban poverty, and public policy surrounding skills training and employment programs.

February 2009
Kauffman Foundation
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Entrepreneurial Impact: The Role of MIT

Edward B. Roberts
Charles Eesley
Sloan School of Management
Research- and technology-intensive universities, especially via their entrepreneurial spinoffs, have a dramatic impact on the economies of the United States and its fifty states. A new report on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, indicates conservatively that, if the active companies founded by MIT graduates formed an independent nation, their revenues would make that nation at least the seventeenth-largest economy in the world. A less conservative direct extrapolation of the underlying survey data boosts the numbers to 25,800 currently active companies founded by MIT alumni that employ about 3.3 million people and generate annual world sales of $2 trillion, producing the equivalent of the eleventh-largest economy in the world.