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ILP Institute Insider

October 20, 2014
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A World of Wireless Power

If you buy a 2016 Toyota Prius, you won’t need to worry about keeping your hybrid car charged — just get the option for wireless power transfer that lets you drive into your garage and have your battery automatically topped up from a pad on the floor.
Morris Kesler
WiTricity CTO
A year or two from now you’ll also be able to purchase laptops, tablets, mobile phones and other consumer electronic devices that don’t need any wires, because their power needs will be met by wireless transmission.

“Instead of having a different charging cord for every device you own, you can have one location where you put your mobile phone or your laptop, and it will stay charged automatically,” says Morris Kesler, Chief Technology Officer at WiTricity of Watertown, Massachusetts. “There’s no reason that these devices need a cord anymore.”

WiTricity, an MIT spinoff, offers highly resonant wireless power transfer technology that “is applicable in any situation where a device has a cord or a battery that needs to be charged,” Kesler says.

An Idea that Resonated
In magnetic induction, an alternating magnetic field is generated in a transmitter coil and then converted into electrical current in a receiver coil. Wireless power systems that exploit this technique have been around for decades, with cordless toothbrushes offering one example. But traditional wireless power systems based on magnetic induction come with severe operational limitations, especially in transfer distance and positioning.

In 2006, MIT physics professor Marin Soljačić and his colleagues demonstrated a highly resonant form of magnetic induction that can carry wireless power efficiently over larger distances — the breakthrough being commercialized by WiTricity.

“The use of resonance enables efficient use of energy transfer over greater distances and with greater positional freedom than you get with a traditional inductive system,” says Kesler. “For example, your cordless toothbrush only works when the toothbrush is in the holder. Resonance technology lets you move that receiver farther apart and still transfer energy efficiently, and the orientation of the device is less critical than it is in a traditional system. You also can transfer energy from one source to more than one device, the source and the devices don’t have to be the same size, and you can charge through materials like tables.”

Most importantly, “the technology allows you to charge things without even thinking about it,” he emphasizes. “You put your device on a table or a workspace, and it charges as you go.”

Like other magnetic inductive power transmissions, the WiTricity technology interacts only very weakly with the human body, Kesler adds. From a safety perspective, it satisfies the same regulatory limits as common household electronics and appliances.

As the holder of the foundational patents, WiTricity is helping to drive standardization efforts around wireless power transfer over distance using magnetic resonance, including those for automobiles run by the Society of Automotive Engineers and those for consumer electronics pursued by the Alliance for Wireless Power, whose Rezence™ specification incorporates WiTricity technology.

Powering Up Under Difficult Conditions
In addition to offering compelling increases in convenience for cars and consumer electronics, the WiTricity technology will provide dramatic enhancements in applications where power is difficult to deliver.

In one example, WiTricity licensee Thoratec is leveraging the improved wireless power transfer to develop better heart-assist pumps. Today, such pumps are typically powered by implanted wires that exit the body. Wireless power transfer offers the potential to improve quality of life for patients, giving them greater freedom of movement, and removing the wires that are uncomfortable and likely to trigger infections. Medical devices implanted several centimeters below the skin could be charged safely and with high efficiency, Kesler says.

In addition to a host of medical applications, the technology is finding many uses in industrial settings. Wireless power transfer that works over a distance offers important advantages, for instance, in powering equipment that gets wet. “You don’t necessarily want to have a charge port on a device like that,” Kesler points out. “By embedding our technology into that device, you can charge it wirelessly without having to plug it in, which basically offers a safer usage model.”

For example, the remotely operated undersea vehicles employed in offshore petroleum operations must dock very precisely to connect up for charging. “WiTricity technology would allow you to charge them without requiring that precise positioning and without having any electrical components exposed,” Kesler says.

The company also envisions a host of military applications, ranging from powering remotely operated vehicles to rationalizing the collections of batteries carried by foot combatants.

Readying for Fast-growing Markets
WiTricity’s publicly announced licensees include Intel and Mediatek for consumer electronics, and Delphi, IHI, TDK and Toyota for automotive applications. The total market for wireless power systems of all kinds will reach $8.5 billion in 2018, driven most strongly by adoption in mobile phones and tablet computers, predicts IHS Technology. In this highly competitive market, numerous companies will offer different technologies and system designs. Many products will work by traditional magnetic induction, but those using magnetic resonance technology will need a WiTricity license, Kesler says.

“The market has started to catch up with the technology now, and we are working on standardized licensing agreements to make it easier for our customers to put it into practice,” he says. The firm develops prototypes and reference designs that help licensees get started on their applications, and offers the WiCAD simulation environment, a design tool that allows companies to create specifications for their designs virtually before building expensive prototypes.

WiTricity also sells demonstration products that allow companies considering the technology to see it in action. “Additionally, at our facility, we can demonstrate the technology in ways that are difficult to explain on a piece of paper,” Kesler says. “Usually when people see the technology they say, ‘Wow, that looks like magic, how do you do that?’”

Research News

October 17, 2014

Superconducting circuits, simplified

Computer chips with superconducting circuits — circuits with zero electrical resistance — would be 50 to 100 times as energy-efficient as today’s chips, an attractive trait given the increasing power consumption of the massive data centers that power the Internet’s most popular sites.

Superconducting chips also promise greater processing power: Superconducting circuits that use so-called Josephson junctions have been clocked at 770 gigahertz, or 500 times the speed of the chip in the iPhone 6.

But Josephson-junction chips are big and hard to make; most problematic of all, they use such minute currents that the results of their computations are difficult to detect. For the most part, they’ve been relegated to a few custom-engineered signal-detection applications.

In the latest issue of the journal Nano Letters, MIT researchers present a new circuit design that could make simple superconducting devices much cheaper to manufacture. And while the circuits’ speed probably wouldn’t top that of today’s chips, they could solve the problem of reading out the results of calculations performed with Josephson junctions.

MIT Sloan
Management Review

October 22, 2014

Are Speedy Chinese Manufacturers Invention’s Best Friend?

Does innovation count if it’s not economically viable?

Some definitions of innovation imply that the answer is no.

Writing in the Summer 2014 issue of MIT Sloan Management Review, Edward S. Steinfeld (Brown University) and Troels Beltoft (Beltoft & Company, based in Denmark), say that their definition of innovation is “linking invention — the origination of new ideas — with commercialization, the translation of new ideas into actual products or services that can command value.”

And the best place to learn how to do that today, they say, is China.

“You need to have the knowledge and ability to transform the new into the profitable,” they write in “Innovation Lessons From China.” “This is where the Chinese business ecosystem excels.”

Steinfeld and Beltoft acknowledge that “China today may not yet be the place to go for path-breaking R&D or radical new invention.” But they say that “it’s becoming the best place to go if you want to learn how to make ideas commercially viable.”

The Chinese ability to link invention with profitability comes from several manufacturing approaches. They include these three:

1) The ability to adapt product design for low-cost manufacturing.
2) Novel approaches to component sourcing.
3) A focus on accelerating speed to market.

“Each element requires creativity and distinct types of knowledge,” write Steinfeld and Beltoft. This kind of creativity and know-how should not be underestimated: the authors say that it’s a critical part of manufacturing.

China manufacturers are particularly strong in speed — what the authors term “capabilities for rapid tempo operations and speed to market.”

“For several reasons — policy uncertainty, the vast number of competitors populating most sectors in China, legacies of traditional Chinese approaches to business, etc. — commercial success in China is often intimately linked with tempo,” they write. Commercial value, in this case, comes from products that may offer just incremental upgrades but that come to market extremely quickly.

“The new product may provide slightly new functionality, or it may simply offer an existing product at a slightly lower price point,” they write. “Either way, its introduction permits the producer, at least for a brief period of time, to realize a slightly higher margin. The proprietary knowledge needed to deliver this product is understood to be fleeting; it will soon be learned or copied by competitors.”

Steinfeld and Beltoft continue: “The imperative, then, is to get the product to market as quickly as possible, capture increased margins during a narrow time frame, and then, as soon as the inevitable imitators jump in, scramble forward into a new round of incremental product innovation. In virtually all cases, winners in this system develop enhanced capabilities for speed in design, speed to market and speed in debugging.”

There are, of course, downsides to speed. Quality can take a hit. The authors write that, for instance, “Chinese turbine makers have embraced speed to market and cost reduction as managerial imperatives that take precedence over everything, including quality.” That means, they note, that “some companies have intentionally released products before they were fully developed and tested, on the understanding that few customers were willing to pay for perfection and glitches could generally be addressed on the back end.”

But the bottom line is that Western companies would do well to embrace the opportunities to partner with Chinese companies and to learn from what they’re good at, maintain the authors. “Many in the West fear that allowing manufacturing to migrate offshore over the past two decades has impeded their innovative capacity,” they write. That thinking misses the mark, they say.

“Whether we’re talking about specialized industrial equipment or mass-manufactured consumer products, knowing how to translate an idea into a viable product is in many ways at the heart of innovation, the fulcrum upon which value creation rests,” Steinfeld and Beltoft reiterate. “China today has become the leading global center for precisely this kind of knowledge.”


This article draws from “Innovation Lessons From China,” by Edward S. Steinfeld (Brown University) and Troels Beltoft (Beltoft & Company), which appeared in the Summer 2014 issue of MIT Sloan Management Review.