Conference Details - Agenda
Media Lab, E14, 6th Floor
Recent advances in understanding micro- and nano-scale phenomena and in manipulating materials in those scales will enable manufacture of multifunctional building materials with enhanced structural as well as energetic properties. In this talk, I will provide examples of potential technologies and developments that can be scaled up, as a way to revitalize US manufacturing, for the design and production of such materials for sustainable development.
Work presented here was supported by the Department of Energy, through the S3TEC Energy Frontier Research Center.
This chemo-mechanical coupling between oxygen stoichiometry and expansion is defined, analogous to thermal expansion, by a chemical coefficient of expansion, which experimentally has been observed to depend on material composition and structure. The atomic origins of the chemical expansion in fluorite and perovskite structured oxides are explored by atomic level computational methods and validated by experimental data including lattice dilation, defect generation and carrier localization. The implications of chemical expansion, including discussion of models developed to predict its impact on SOFCs as well as secondary effects, namely reduction in elastic modulus, as well as a case study of chemical expansion in Pr0.1Ce0.9O2-δ, correlating oxygen non-stoichiometry with expansion is presented.
We have developed a new type of nanowire-based solar cells that are based on organic/inorganic hybrid device structures and demonstrated two distinct hybrid BHJ architectures with enhanced power conversion efficiencies. The first device structure was composed of GaAs nanowires blended with a conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to form a uniform film consisting of dispersed nanowires in a polymer matrix. We observed that above a certain nanowire loading threshold, the nanowires facilitate P3HT molecular ordering, which leads to improved charge transport and yields devices with >2.3% power conversion efficiency. In the second device structure, CdS quantum dots were bound onto crystalline P3HT nanowires through solvent-assisted grafting and ligand exchange, leading to controlled organic-inorganic phase separation and an improved maximum power conversion efficiency of 4.1%.
In both cases, our results clearly demonstrate some of the benefits of organic-inorganic BHJ devices, mostly through enhanced absorption and improved carrier transport in the active region of the device. We have also identified several critical parameters to further boost the device efficiency and enable scalable, cost-efficient production, and these will be discussed.
Room 491, Stratton Student Center
Can fibers become highly functional objects similar to computers and smartphones? Can they see, hear, sense, and communicate? Our research focuses on extending the frontiers of fiber materials from optical transmission to encompass electronic and even acoustic properties. Central to our approach is the combination of a multiplicity of disparate solid state materials, arranged in elaborate macroscopic architectures which are thermally drawn into kilometer long fibers with internal features down to 10 nanometers. Two complementary approaches towards realizing sophisticated functions are explored: on the single-fiber level, the integration of a multiplicity of functional components into one fiber, and on the multiple-fiber level, the assembly of large-scale fiber arrays and fabrics. We are in the midst of changing the way we think of fibers and fabrics forever.
The first steps in implementing this new vision for fibers have already occurred. The most important one involved the creation of the first multimaterial fiber for precision surgical applications. These fibers transmit a wavelength of light which could never be sent through a fiber. In doing so, they enable surgeons to remove tumors while minimizing collateral damage to adjacent healthy tissue. Approximately 50,000 people have been treated thus far with this technology for removal of tumors from the brain, airways, hearing restoration and the treatment of endometriosis.
1. Abouraddy, et al., “Towards Multimaterial Multifunctional Fibres that See, Hear, Sense and Communicate,” Nature Materials 6, No. 5, 336-347, May 2007.
2. Bayindir et al, “Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Optoelectronic Fibres,” Nature 431, 826-829, October 2004
3. Egusa et al, “Multimaterial Piezoelectric Fibres,” Nature Materials 9, No. 8, 643-348, 2010
Joint Work with: Jason Cloud, Flavio du Pin Calmon, Kerim Fouli, Minji Kim, Marie-José Montpetit, Asuman Ozdaglar, Ali ParandehGheibi, Chris Ng, Michael Mitzenmacher, Jay-Kumar Sundararajan, Joao Barros, Michael Heindlmaier, Ashutosh Kulkarni, Danail Traskov, Srinivas Shakkottai, Shirley Shi, Surat Teerapittayanon, Weifei Zeng.
1. “Neurosurgery: Functional Regeneration after Laser Axotomy”, Yanik MF, Cinar H, Cinar N, Chisholm A, Jin Y, Ben-Yakar A., Nature 432, 822 (2004).
2. “Microfluidic system for on-chip high-throughput whole-animal sorting and screening at subcellular resolution”, Rohde C, Angel M, Zeng F, Gonzalez R, Yanik MF, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 104, 13891 (2007).
3. “Sub-cellular precision on-chip small-animal immobilization, multi-photon imaging and femtosecond-laser manipulation”, Zei F, Rohde C, Yanik MF, Lab on Chip 8, 653 (2008). HOT Article.
4. “Construction of a Femtosecond Laser Microsurgery System”, Steinmeyer J, Gilleland C, Pardo C, Angel M, Yanik MF, Nature Protocols 5, 395 (2010).
5. "Innate Immune Suppression Enables Frequent Transfection with RNA Encoding Reprogramming Proteins", Angel M, Yanik MF, PLoS ONE 5, e11756 (2010).
6. “Microfluidic immobilization of physiologically active C. elegans for subcellular imaging and laser microsurgery”, Gilleland C, Rohde C, Zeng F, Yanik MF, Nature Protocols 5,1888-902 (2010).
7. “High-throughput subcellular in vivo vertebrate screening”, Carlos P-M, Chang T-Y, Yanik MF, Nature Methods 7, 634 (2010). Cover Article. Commentary in Nature Methods 7, 600 (2010).
8. “Large-scale in vivo femtosecond laser neurosurgery screen reveals small-molecule enhancer of regeneration”, Samara C, Rohde C, Gilleland C, Norton S, Haggarty S, Yanik MF, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 107, 18342-7 (2010). See highlight in Nature 886 (2010).
9. “Large-scale Analysis of Neurite Growth Dynamics on Micropatterned Substrates”, Wissner-Gross Z, Scott M, Ku D, Ramaswamy P, Yanik MF, Integrative Biology 3, 65-74 (2011).
10. “Subcellular in vivo time lapse imaging and surgery of C. elegans in standard multiwell plates”, Rohde C, Yanik MF, Nature Communications 2:275 (2011).
11. “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening”, Chang T.-Y., Huang M., Yanik A. A., Tsai H.-Y., Peng S., Aksu S., Yanik M. F., Altug H., Lab on Chip, 11, 3596-3602 (2011). Selected as Journal cover.
12. “Synapse Microarrays Identify Small-molecules that Enhance Synaptogenesis”, Shi P., Scott M. A., Ghosh B., Wan D., Wissner-Gross Z., Mazitschek R., Haggarty S. J., Yanik M. F., Nature Communications, 2:510 (2011).
13. “Fully automated cellular-resolution vertebrate screening platform with parallel animal processing”, Chang T.-Y., Pardo-Martin C., Allalou A., Wählby C.,Yanik M. F., Lab on Chip, 12, 711 (2012). Selected as Journal Cover.
14. "High-Throughput Single-Cell Manipulation in Brain Tissue", Steinmeyer, J. D., Yanik, M. F., PLoS ONE, 7, e35603 (2012).
15. "Ultra-rapid laser protein micropatterning: screening for directed polarization of single neurons", Scott, M. A., Wissner-Gross, Z. D., Yanik M. F., Lab on Chip, 12, 2265-2276 (2012).
We employ a new, alternative approach, the Autonomous Basin Climbing (ABC) method (kushima et al., JCP, 130, (2009)), to construct the atomic trajectories and the corresponding potential energy landscape associated with the microstructural evolution in the material. Using ABC we investigate the climb of an edge type dislocation over an irradiation induced self interstitial atom (SIA) cluster in Zr as a model system. Our results span a much wider range of strain rates (10-7s-1~108s-1) than is possible by traditional MD simulations alone.
Furthermore, the strain-rate response of flow stress in a plastically deforming crystal is formulated through a stress sensitive dislocation mobility model that can be evaluated by atomistic simulation. For the flow stress of a model crystal of bcc Fe containing a screw dislocation, this approach describes naturally a non-Arrhenius upturn at high train rate, an experimentally established transitional behavior for which the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. Implications of our findings regarding the previous explanations of strain-rate effects on flow stress are discussed.
This talk is based on work supported by the Center for Materials at Irradiation and Mechanical Extremes, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number 2008LANL1026, the LANL LDRD program, and by the MIT-BP Materials and Corrosion Research Center.
- Scott Kirsner
- Sam Madden
- Sandy Pentland
- Willard Simmons
- Rama Ramakrishnan
Our world is drowning in data! Recently, everyone working on information technology issues is talking about or expressing worry about the rather ill-defined topic of "Big Data."
Every company in every industry is collecting an increasing amount of data: data about its customers; data about its products, data about its processes. Every human with a job or a car a bank account has data about their particulars stored in multiple databases. Anyone with an electronic device (mobile phone, laptop, scanner, camera) is creating a trail of data about their activities. On any given day, an individual moving through the world and initiating any kind of transaction (e.g. purchasing groceries, driving on a toll road, withdrawing money from an ATM), is generating data that is being collected somewhere. Corporate participation and investments in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, LnkedIn), has added to the data we're generating and collecting. Individual participation at these same web sites generates even more data. And finally, an increasing number of sensors in the world, all collecting and broadcasting data in real time, are responsible for even more data that can be used to help make decisions. There is so much data in the world, that we're now looking to services that can store is and back it up elsewhere -- somewhere in "the cloud." And now we need to worry about how secure this data is!
While many companies appear to be focused on collection, storage and the security of this data, some companies (led by online social media and search firms such as Google, Amazon and Facebook) are capitalizing on this data to develop extremely accurate profiles of their customers, in order to provide each individual with services that would be most useful to that person. These are the firms that currently have some of the leading researchers who can interpret, analyze and make decisions on this data. Today, as we continue to face a mountain of data, we are realizing that there is a great shortage of skilled mathematicians, computer scientists, programmers, business analysts and decision makers that know what's relevant to collect, how to interpret this data from multiple sources, and how to make sense of any of it.
This panel brings together researchers and start-up companies in Big Data to explore the following questions:
- What types of problems are most frequently being considered when the topic of "Big Data" comes up? In what industries?
- How does an organization pull together a team of statisticians, experts in machine learning, analysts and decision makers to determine what data is relevant to your organization?'
- Is it just the data? What about the connections?
- How does one know that correlations in data and the conclusions/interpretations that may result really make sense?
- What are examples of an organization's strategy around "Big Data" that the panelists could share?
- Do discussions about where to store and how to access this data (e.g. cloud vs. in-house) often cloud users' discussions about what to do with this data?
This talk will focus on microfluidic approaches for measuring the physical properties of single cells with particular focus on high precision measurement of cell mass, growth, density, and deformability. Ultimately, the ability to combine multi-parameter physical with molecular measurements at the single-cell level could not only be used to further understanding of important cellular processes such as malignant transformation but may also be used to increase the predictive power of clinical diagnostics.