Conference Details - Agenda
Media Lab, E14, 6th Floor
Recent advances in understanding micro- and nano-scale phenomena and in manipulating materials in those scales will enable manufacture of multifunctional building materials with enhanced structural as well as energetic properties. In this talk, I will provide examples of potential technologies and developments that can be scaled up, as a way to revitalize US manufacturing, for the design and production of such materials for sustainable development.
Work presented here was supported by the Department of Energy, through the S3TEC Energy Frontier Research Center.
This chemo-mechanical coupling between oxygen stoichiometry and expansion is defined, analogous to thermal expansion, by a chemical coefficient of expansion, which experimentally has been observed to depend on material composition and structure. The atomic origins of the chemical expansion in fluorite and perovskite structured oxides are explored by atomic level computational methods and validated by experimental data including lattice dilation, defect generation and carrier localization. The implications of chemical expansion, including discussion of models developed to predict its impact on SOFCs as well as secondary effects, namely reduction in elastic modulus, as well as a case study of chemical expansion in Pr0.1Ce0.9O2-δ, correlating oxygen non-stoichiometry with expansion is presented.
We have developed a new type of nanowire-based solar cells that are based on organic/inorganic hybrid device structures and demonstrated two distinct hybrid BHJ architectures with enhanced power conversion efficiencies. The first device structure was composed of GaAs nanowires blended with a conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to form a uniform film consisting of dispersed nanowires in a polymer matrix. We observed that above a certain nanowire loading threshold, the nanowires facilitate P3HT molecular ordering, which leads to improved charge transport and yields devices with >2.3% power conversion efficiency. In the second device structure, CdS quantum dots were bound onto crystalline P3HT nanowires through solvent-assisted grafting and ligand exchange, leading to controlled organic-inorganic phase separation and an improved maximum power conversion efficiency of 4.1%.
In both cases, our results clearly demonstrate some of the benefits of organic-inorganic BHJ devices, mostly through enhanced absorption and improved carrier transport in the active region of the device. We have also identified several critical parameters to further boost the device efficiency and enable scalable, cost-efficient production, and these will be discussed.
Room 491, Stratton Student Center
Can fibers become highly functional objects similar to computers and smartphones? Can they see, hear, sense, and communicate? Our research focuses on extending the frontiers of fiber materials from optical transmission to encompass electronic and even acoustic properties. Central to our approach is the combination of a multiplicity of disparate solid state materials, arranged in elaborate macroscopic architectures which are thermally drawn into kilometer long fibers with internal features down to 10 nanometers. Two complementary approaches towards realizing sophisticated functions are explored: on the single-fiber level, the integration of a multiplicity of functional components into one fiber, and on the multiple-fiber level, the assembly of large-scale fiber arrays and fabrics. We are in the midst of changing the way we think of fibers and fabrics forever.
The first steps in implementing this new vision for fibers have already occurred. The most important one involved the creation of the first multimaterial fiber for precision surgical applications. These fibers transmit a wavelength of light which could never be sent through a fiber. In doing so, they enable surgeons to remove tumors while minimizing collateral damage to adjacent healthy tissue. Approximately 50,000 people have been treated thus far with this technology for removal of tumors from the brain, airways, hearing restoration and the treatment of endometriosis.
1. Abouraddy, et al., “Towards Multimaterial Multifunctional Fibres that See, Hear, Sense and Communicate,” Nature Materials 6, No. 5, 336-347, May 2007.
2. Bayindir et al, “Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Optoelectronic Fibres,” Nature 431, 826-829, October 2004
3. Egusa et al, “Multimaterial Piezoelectric Fibres,” Nature Materials 9, No. 8, 643-348, 2010
Joint Work with: Jason Cloud, Flavio du Pin Calmon, Kerim Fouli, Minji Kim, Marie-José Montpetit, Asuman Ozdaglar, Ali ParandehGheibi, Chris Ng, Michael Mitzenmacher, Jay-Kumar Sundararajan, Joao Barros, Michael Heindlmaier, Ashutosh Kulkarni, Danail Traskov, Srinivas Shakkottai, Shirley Shi, Surat Teerapittayanon, Weifei Zeng.
1. “Neurosurgery: Functional Regeneration after Laser Axotomy”, Yanik MF, Cinar H, Cinar N, Chisholm A, Jin Y, Ben-Yakar A., Nature 432, 822 (2004).
2. “Microfluidic system for on-chip high-throughput whole-animal sorting and screening at subcellular resolution”, Rohde C, Angel M, Zeng F, Gonzalez R, Yanik MF, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 104, 13891 (2007).
3. “Sub-cellular precision on-chip small-animal immobilization, multi-photon imaging and femtosecond-laser manipulation”, Zei F, Rohde C, Yanik MF, Lab on Chip 8, 653 (2008). HOT Article.
4. “Construction of a Femtosecond Laser Microsurgery System”, Steinmeyer J, Gilleland C, Pardo C, Angel M, Yanik MF, Nature Protocols 5, 395 (2010).
5. "Innate Immune Suppression Enables Frequent Transfection with RNA Encoding Reprogramming Proteins", Angel M, Yanik MF, PLoS ONE 5, e11756 (2010).
6. “Microfluidic immobilization of physiologically active C. elegans for subcellular imaging and laser microsurgery”, Gilleland C, Rohde C, Zeng F, Yanik MF, Nature Protocols 5,1888-902 (2010).
7. “High-throughput subcellular in vivo vertebrate screening”, Carlos P-M, Chang T-Y, Yanik MF, Nature Methods 7, 634 (2010). Cover Article. Commentary in Nature Methods 7, 600 (2010).
8. “Large-scale in vivo femtosecond laser neurosurgery screen reveals small-molecule enhancer of regeneration”, Samara C, Rohde C, Gilleland C, Norton S, Haggarty S, Yanik MF, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 107, 18342-7 (2010). See highlight in Nature 886 (2010).
9. “Large-scale Analysis of Neurite Growth Dynamics on Micropatterned Substrates”, Wissner-Gross Z, Scott M, Ku D, Ramaswamy P, Yanik MF, Integrative Biology 3, 65-74 (2011).
10. “Subcellular in vivo time lapse imaging and surgery of C. elegans in standard multiwell plates”, Rohde C, Yanik MF, Nature Communications 2:275 (2011).
11. “Large-scale plasmonic microarrays for label-free high-throughput screening”, Chang T.-Y., Huang M., Yanik A. A., Tsai H.-Y., Peng S., Aksu S., Yanik M. F., Altug H., Lab on Chip, 11, 3596-3602 (2011). Selected as Journal cover.
12. “Synapse Microarrays Identify Small-molecules that Enhance Synaptogenesis”, Shi P., Scott M. A., Ghosh B., Wan D., Wissner-Gross Z., Mazitschek R., Haggarty S. J., Yanik M. F., Nature Communications, 2:510 (2011).
13. “Fully automated cellular-resolution vertebrate screening platform with parallel animal processing”, Chang T.-Y., Pardo-Martin C., Allalou A., Wählby C.,Yanik M. F., Lab on Chip, 12, 711 (2012). Selected as Journal Cover.
14. "High-Throughput Single-Cell Manipulation in Brain Tissue", Steinmeyer, J. D., Yanik, M. F., PLoS ONE, 7, e35603 (2012).
15. "Ultra-rapid laser protein micropatterning: screening for directed polarization of single neurons", Scott, M. A., Wissner-Gross, Z. D., Yanik M. F., Lab on Chip, 12, 2265-2276 (2012).