Building 46 Map
MIT general map location link
Hosted by Douglas A. Lauffenburger
MIT general map location link
Catherine E. Clark
The Videotheque de Paris, a moving image archive of the French capital, opened in 1988, during a period when French technological advances led the world in revolutionizing the circulation of people and information. The Videotheque would be no mere dusty archive but rather a high-tech institution of robots, computers, VCRs, and Minitels. Its organizers deployed the latest technologies to place a century of fiction films, documentaries, television programs, and advertising with Paris as their subject or setting at visitors' disposal. Organizers promised that within a year or two the whole archive would be available in Parisian living rooms, as its collections became the basis of a Parisian on-demand cable channel.Contemporaries imagined that these technologies would transform users' relationship to the past, to turn institutionalized history into memory, a flexible, customizable, and ultimately personal, experience of the past. The dream of an archive that replaced all others by providing constant access to cultural and social memory through technology did not last more than a decade. But the utopian rhetoric that accompanied the Videotheque's creation illuminates and calls into question the utopian promises of the more recent revolution in digital history.MIT assistant professor Catherine E. Clark is a cultural historian who specializes in 19th- and 20th-century France and visual culture.
MIT China Forum:
University of Virginia
Sponsored by: Center for International Studies, MIT India Program, MIT-China Program, Office of the Associate Provost
Professor Beril Toktay
Professor of Operations Management
Brady Family Chairholder and ADVANCE Professor
Scheller College of Business, Georgia Institute of Technology
Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a policy tool that holds producers financially responsible for the post-use collection, recycling and disposal of their products. Many EPR implementations are collective – a large collection and recycling network (CRN) handles multiple producers' products in order to benefit from scale and scope economies. The total cost is then allocated to producers based on metrics such as their return shares by weight. Such weight-based proportional allocation mechanisms are criticized in practice for not taking into account the heterogeneity in the costs imposed by different producers' products. The consequence is cost allocations that impose higher costs on certain producer groups than they can achieve independently. This may lead some producers to break away from collective systems, undermining cost efficiency, or cause them to underinvest in design-for-environment efforts within the collective system, undermining design effectiveness. We develop a cooperative network game model of producer participation in a collective system, embedded in a bi-form game that models the initial design investment. We propose cost allocation mechanisms to improve on current practice and study their value in the context of a Washington State case study. Our analysis identifies a critical trade-off between design and participation incentives, with implications for the effective design of EPR implementations.
Beril Toktay is Professor of Operations Management, the Brady Family Chairholder and ADVANCE Professor at Georgia Institute of Technology’s Scheller College of Business. Her research focuses on sustainable operations and supply chain management. Professor Toktay has received several National Science Foundation grants for her research, which has appeared in journals such as Management Science, M&SOM, Operations Research, Production and Operations Management and Industrial Ecology. She is Area Editor (Environment, Energy and Sustainability) for Operations Research and serves as Associate Editor for Management Science and M&SOM. She has served as the Co-Editor of the M&SOM Special Issue on the Environment and President of the M&SOM Society. In 2013, Professor Toktay established the Center for Business Strategies for Sustainability, recently renamed the Ray C. Anderson Center for Sustainable Business. The Center supports and promotes Scheller faculty and students’ research, education and outreach activities in sustainable business. Professor Toktay holds BS degrees in Industrial Engineering and Mathematics from Bosphorus University, an MS degree in Industrial Engineering from Purdue University and a PhD degree in Operations Research from MIT. Before joining Georgia Tech, she was an Associate Professor of Operations Management at INSEAD. She is currently a Visiting Scholar at Harvard Business School.
Building 46 Map
When we learn, new information becomes connected to existing knowledge. These connections determine how we can use our memory systems in the future. In this talk, I will describe my investigations into how information (words, inferred associations and perceptual features of known objects) become integrated into memory networks of the human brain. I begin at the stage of first learning a new concept, presenting new evidence that learning via a procedure known as fast mapping allows novel concepts to be rapidly integrated into various cortical memory networks. Next, I examine the formation of relational memories between existing items in memory, presenting findings that consolidation processes during sleep help form relational connections, without a need for explicit training. Finally, I will discuss my work into the organization
of established memory networks, using functional magnetic resonance imaging with advanced "pattern decoding" techniques, which give the necessary specificity for probing the neural representations of information in memory. Using a novel network-based approach, I ask how information held in different brain systems is integrated. Together, these studies speak to the principles underlying learning and eventual integration into the brain's distributed networks.
John C. Gore, Ph.D.
Professor of Radiology & Radiological Sciences
Director, Institute for Imaging Science
Several new experimental observations promise to extend the role of MRI in neuroscience. For example, diffusion measurements at short diffusion times allow the derivation of microstructural information such as axon sizes, while recently discovered anisotropic resting state correlations in MRI signals between adjacent voxels in brain appear to follow white matter tracts and can be analyzed in similar manner as diffusion tensors but without diffusion gradients to reveal an apparent underlying structure. Another novel finding in non-human primate studies has been the identification of robust resting state correlations between regions within and along the cervical spine, evidence of connectivity in spinal grey matter. These correlations change after an injury and have been replicated at 7T in human subjects. Finally, the diffusion of water among susceptibility gradients contributes to BOLD contrast but also affects T1rho to a degree that can be modulated by choice of locking field in spin lock experiments. This flexibility allows selective editing of vascular contributions to BOLD images and also potentially the derivation of new quantitative descriptors of microvascular dimensions. These different phenomena actually share some common origins and are each suggestive of potential new research directions and applications of MRI.